A questionnaire was developed by a group of psychiatrists at the National Institute of Mental Health (Hanoi, Vietnam) to collect data on socioeconomic characteristics and psychological status of healthcare workers and information about the COVID-19 pandemic. Healthcare workers’ psychological problems were assessed with the use of the Vietnamese versions of the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) scale, the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) scale.

The PHQ-9 scale is a 9-item depression questionnaire that is designed to detect probable individuals of depression and to assess degree of depression severity within past two weeks. In various medical settings, the validated depression scale was reported with good reliability (Cronbach’s α = 0.86–0.89). The total score of PHQ-9 scale after self-reported response ranges from 0 to 27, and more severe depression symptom was shown with a higher score. The scores were categorized as follows: absence of depression (0–4), mild depression (5–9), moderate depression (10–14), and severe depression (15–27).

The GAD-7 scale, a 7-item self-reported anxiety questionnaire, proved valid with high reliability (Cronbach’s α = 0.89). Though initially designed to identify generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), the GAD-7 has also been considered as a good screening tool for other common anxiety disorders. All the items are rated on a 4-point scale, and the total score ranges from 0 to 21 and is interpreted as follows: absence of anxiety (0–4), mild anxiety (5–9), moderate anxiety (10–14), and severe anxiety (15–21).

The ISI is a valid self-reported instrument with the high reliability of the scale (Cronbach’s α = 0.90–0.91). This scale was used to diagnose insomnia and to categorize the level of symptom severity in the previous 2 weeks. A 5-point Likert scale is used to rate the 7 items. The total score of ISI scale ranges from 0 to 28, more severe insomnia was reported with a higher score, and the total score is categorized as follows: absence of insomnia (0–7), mild insomnia (8–14), moderate insomnia (15–21), and severe insomnia (22–28).

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