The GAD-7 scale, a 7-item self-reported anxiety questionnaire, proved valid with high reliability (Cronbach’s α = 0.89). Though initially designed to identify generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), the GAD-7 has also been considered as a good screening tool for other common anxiety disorders. All the items are rated on a 4-point scale, and the total score ranges from 0 to 21 and is interpreted as follows: absence of anxiety (0–4), mild anxiety (5–9), moderate anxiety (10–14), and severe anxiety (15–21).

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