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The finite volume method and the staggered grid technique are utilized to solve transport equations and Reynolds stress models in a generalized coordinate space. The quadratic upstream interpolation for convective kinematics procedure and the central difference scheme (CDS) for the diffusion terms are employed as well. The computational domain is first divided into a finite number of control volumes and then was integrated over this certain control volume. The semi-implicit for pressure linked equation correction, the tri-diagonal marching algorithm, the line-by-line iteration, and the under-relaxation are served for the velocity corrections to meet the requirements of continuity criteria, which are set to the of 1.0 × 10–4 for residual mass sources. The uniform and parabolic distributions for gas and particle inlet velocity, the isotropic profiles for normal components of Reynolds stresses, and the eddy viscosity hypothesis for shear stress are set up. Values of initial values of the particle temperature are defined by θ = 0.005u2p,in, and inlet dissipation is εin = cμ0.75 kin1.5/λL. Nonslip wall conditions are set for gas velocity and the gas Reynolds stresses were determined by the production terms. The tangential particle velocity and granular temperature at the wall are calculated.44 In-house computational codes are compiled by the Fortran 77 consisting of approximately 22,000 statements.

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