Demographic, clinical and laboratory assessment

For the demographic and clinical factors, we assessed age, sex, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, current smoking, stroke mechanism, initial stroke severity, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures21,29. The stroke mechanism was determined according to the Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment classification30, and the study population was divided into four groups as follows: intracranial-large artery atherosclerosis (IC-LAA), extracranial-large artery atherosclerosis (EC-LAA), cardioembolism (CE), and cryptogenic23. IC-LAA was diagnosed when there was symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis (occlusion or ≥ 50% stenosis) without evidence of EC-LAA or CE23,31. EC-LAA was defined as having symptomatic extracranial atherosclerosis without IC-LAA or CE23,32. Initial stroke severity was rated daily using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score from admission to discharge by trained neurologists not involved in this study.

Laboratory examinations were performed after 12 h of overnight fasting, including glucose profiles, lipid profiles, white blood cell (WBC) counts, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein20. The TyG index was calculated using the formula of “the log scale of [fasting TG (mg/dL) x fasting glucose (mg/dL)/2]15,22. We also calculated the TG/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio as another IR marker by dividing the absolute TG levels by absolute HDL cholesterol levels22.

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