All statistical analyses were performed using R (v3.4.4; and RMINC ( The pROC (version 1.16.2) package was used to calculate the receiver‐operating characteristic (ROC) curve and the e1071 (version 1.7‐3) package was used for the support vector machine (or SVM) analysis. Whole‐brain correction for multiple comparisons was performed using the false discovery rate (FDR; voxel‐wise threshold of P FDR < 0.05). To strengthen any voxel‐wise VTA mapping results and address the presence of non‐independent observations in our data, we also conducted a non‐parametric permutation analysis at the cluster level. Following a previously described approach, the clinical score associated with each VTA was randomly shuffled across all lead‐contact combinations, creating 10,000 new permuted data sets. Summary Q statistics were obtained for each data set and the summary statistic magnitudes of the actual voxel‐wise map and the permuted maps were compared to discern the validity of the observed results. 35 , 36 , 37

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