To explore how these findings related to the relevant human literature, we analyzed the spatial overlap between our DBS‐induced flashback functional connectivity network and (1) brain structures identified through meta‐analysis as evoking memory events when stimulated 5 ; and (2) brain regions whose BOLD response is associated with memory as per Neurosynth ( meta‐analyses of published task‐based fMRI studies. 32 For the former, we selected bilateral probabilistic regions‐of‐interest (ROIs) using a standardized atlas (Harvard‐Oxford cortical‐subcortical atlas) in MNI space (Figure  4 A). 33 For the latter, we used meta‐analytic association maps of voxels linked to autobiographical memory and memory retrieval across 84 and 228 pre‐existing fMRI studies, respectively. To assess whether overlap with these entities was non‐random, we permuted the voxels in the DBS‐induced flashback connectivity network 1000 times and determined the extent of each permutation's overlap with the aforementioned ROIs and meta‐analytic association maps. As an additional validation, we used the Neurosynth “decoder” to identify behavioral functional networks—derived from all available fMRI meta‐analyses—with the greatest spatial similarity to the flashback network. 32 , 34

Connectomic mapping of flashback phenomena and comparison with memory‐inducing ROIs and regions involved in autobiographical memory. (A) Results of voxel‐wise normative functional connectivity analysis showing significantly (P FDR < 0.05) positively (red) and negatively (blue) connected voxels associated with memory flashbacks are overlaid on sagittal (left), coronal (middle), and axial (right) T1‐weighted MNI152 brain slices. Flashback‐inducing stimulation was linked to greater connectivity to the bilateral lateral temporal lobes, medial temporal lobes, prefrontal regions, cingulate cortex, and insular cortex. (B) Table stating percentage overlap of ROIs at which electrical stimulation reportedly induces acute memory events (see C) and Neurosynth meta‐analytic association maps (see D) with the DBS‐induced flashback connectome (P FDR < 0.05). The P value indicating the likelihood that this overlap is random given 1000 permutations of the flashback connectome is also provided (P permutation). (C, D) Axial T1‐weighted MNI152 brain slices showing DBS‐induced flashback connectome (warm colors) with (C) ROI outlines (white; labeled—see B), and (D) Neurosynth meta‐analytic association maps (green and blue—see B). FDR = false discovery rate; MNI = Montreal Neurological Institute; n.s= not significant; ROI = region of interest

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