To investigate wider brain networks associated with flashback‐inducing stimulation, whole‐brain connectivity maps were derived for each VTA using a high‐quality normative 3 Tesla rsfMRI data set (http://neuroinformatics.harvard.edu/gsp/) as described previously. 25 , 28 , 29 , 30 , 31 Normative data were used for the primary analysis instead of patient‐derived rsfMRI images because the latter were not acquired in the majority of patients and were of low fidelity (eg, 1.5 Tesla) when present. Per this connectomic method, correlations with the seed region (ie, the VTA) were obtained for each voxel in the brain based on the time course of low‐frequency blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations across 1000 healthy subjects (age range: 18‐35 years; 57% female) (in‐house MATLAB script, The MathWorks, Inc., Version R2018a. Natick, MA). Whole‐brain voxel‐wise logistic regression was then conducted to identify brain areas whose connectedness was associated with incidence of memory events. Finally, to validate these normative results, a supplemental connectivity analysis was performed using a disease‐specific connectome assembled from 12 AD‐DBS patients with available preoperative rsfMRI imaging.

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