Adult females (2 to 3 days old, avg. 20–150/experiment) were transferred to bean leaf discs (35 mm in diameter) on wet cotton wool using a brush. Solutions diluted to various concentrations (1/8-, 1/4-, 1/2-, 1-, 2-, and 4 times the recommended concentration of pesticide) were sprayed (3 mL each) onto the discs, which were then dried in the dark for 30 min. The recommended concentration of each pesticide was only used to treat the field-collected populations. The dishes were incubated at 25–27 °C under 40–60% relative humidity and a 16 L:8 D photoperiod. Mortality was evaluated at 48 h after treatment. Control groups were sprayed with distilled water only, and the control mortality in all tests never exceeded 5%. All experiments were replicated three times.

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