For IHC staining, paraffin sections (2μm-thick) were de-paraffinized with xylene and ethanol, and incubated in 0.01 M citrate buffer (pH 6.0) at 121°C/100 kpa for 3 minutes to retrieve antigen. Samples were incubated with primary antibodies (Table S1) at 4 °C overnight, and then washed by PBS three times and incubated with fluorescent dye- or HRP-conjugated secondary antibody at 37 °C for 30 minutes. Nuclei were labeled with Hoechst 33,342 for fluorescent dye. DAB (Thermo Fisher) was used for HRP-conjugated antibody followed by counterstaining with hematoxylin (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, US) and covering in neutral balsam (Solarbio, Beijing, China).

For ICC staining, monolayer cells grown on coverslips were fixed with 4% PFA, and then permeabilized with 0.3% Triton X-100. Followed by block with 1% BSA at room temperature for 20–30 minutes. After that, cells were incubated with primary antibodies (Table S1) at 4 °C overnight, and then incubated with fluorescent dye-conjugated secondary antibody for 30 minutes at 37 °C. Nuclei were labeled with DAPI.

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