To meet our objective, we generally adopted the process of adaptation/translation of the Italian version of MARS [9]. Following consultations with the authors of the expert MARS version, it was deemed that the two Italian versions were fully interchangeable from the points of view of conceptual, item, semantic, operational, measurement and functional equivalence. Indeed, the uMARS has simpler wording, but at the same time shares the same topics with the expert version. The formal adaptation procedure was therefore judged redundant.

The English version of uMARS was then translated into Italian by a professional bilingual translator. The resulting output was then compared with the validated expert scale and discussed by the research group, which led to only minor changes being made. A back-translation was then performed in order to verify the compatibility and accuracy of meaning between the source and target languages. The authors of the original Italian MARS scale approved the final Italian uMARS questionnaire [9]. The final version of the questionnaire is available in Appendix A.

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