TER was synthesized from dimethyl l-tartrate. All spectra, including 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, infrared (IR) spectra, and specific rotation of the synthetic TER, were similar to those of natural TER and those that were previously described (Mandai et al., 2014). The following were used: human soluble RANKL (Wako, Hiroshima, Japan), human M-CSF (Leucoprol, Kyowa Hakko Kogyo, Japan), zoledronic acid (ZOL: Tokyo Chemical Industry, Japan), rabbit anti-total PKCα, rabbit anti–phospho-PKCα/βII and PKCδ monoclonal antibodies (Cell Signaling Technology Danvers, MA, United States), mouse anti–β-actin monoclonal antibody (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, United States), and the PKC inhibitor GF109203X (Bisindolylmaleimide I, Selleckchem, Japan).

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