Healthcare discrimination attributed to race and ethnicity, and income and education level was assessed with four items: (1) How often have you experienced discrimination in ability to obtain healthcare because of your race or ethnicity? (2) How often have you experienced discrimination in ability to obtain healthcare because or your income or education level? (3) How often have you experienced discrimination in how you were treated when you got care because of your race or ethnicity? (4) How often have you experienced discrimination in how you were treated when you got care because of income or education level? Race/ethnicity items are taken from the NESARC-III [73]. Items were assessed on a 5-point scale with response options ranging from 1 = never to 5 = very often and were averaged with higher scores indicating more frequent race-/ethnicity-based healthcare discrimination (alpha = 0.90).

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