In our study, we identified retinal vascular diseases, including DME, nAMD, mCNV, branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO), and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Patients without a history of anti-VEGF treatment were included. After review of the multimodal images of each eye, disease diagnoses and need for anti-VEGF treatment were determined by 3 trained retinal ophthalmologists (LY, CHW, and SYP, who had 20, 10, and 6 years of clinical experience, respectively). Eye images were first reviewed by 2 of the retinal ophthalmologists (CHW and SYP). The ophthalmologists (CHW and SYP) excluded images with poor quality or nondifferentiable diagnosis. When the disease labels assigned by the ophthalmologists differed, a consensus was reached through discussion among all 3 retinal ophthalmologists. The senior retinal ophthalmologist (LY) again confirmed the image labels that were consistent in the first labeling. The patients were classified into DME, nAMD, mCNV, BRVO, and CRVO groups according to their disease diagnosis. The retinal ophthalmologists further defined diseases as anti-VEGF treatment requiring or non–treatment requiring. Based on the published literature, the treatment requirement was defined separately in each retinal vascular disease according to the features in different images [1,2,13-15]. Moreover, in the control group, we included patients who had undergone retinal fundus photography, OCT, and FA/ICGA examination for clinical purposes, but the examinations revealed no remarkable lesions or only lesions not related to retinal vascular diseases. For multimodal imaging, retinal fundus photos were macular centered; OCT images were fovea centered; and FA/ICGA images, which were randomly selected from different phases, were macular centered.

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