Data were analysed with SPSS Version 25.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). Continuous measures will be expressed as the mean value ± standard deviation or median and interquartile range (IQR). Categorical variables were presented as percentages and were compared using the χ 2 test or the Fisher exact test. ANOVA or Kruskal–Wallis test was used to test the differential distribution of data among groups, with appropriate post hoc corrections for interactions (Tukey–Kramer or Conover test, respectively). Cox proportional‐hazard regression analysis was used to identify predictors of outcome. Multivariate analysis was performed in a stepwise fashion, including the echo‐derived variables with the highest statistical significance at univariate analysis, considering P‐value and χ 2 goodness of fit. We excluded collinearity using variance inflation factor > 5 and privileged categorical variables in the final model to favour a more practical, faster, and easier clinical decision making. 25 Kaplan–Meier curves were constructed, and log‐rank tests were used to test for differences between curves. A P‐value of 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

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