For each patient, demographics, comorbidities, time from onset of COVID-19 symptoms to ICU admission, initial presentation of the disease in ICU including the ratio of the arterial partial pressure of oxygen to the fractional inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2 ratio) at admission, antiviral therapy targeting SARS-CoV-2 and organ support were documented. Organ dysfunctions according to sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score (range 0–24, with higher scores indicating more severe organ failures) and simplified acute physiology score II (SAPS II; range 0–164, with higher scores indicating greater severity of illness) were documented. Patients were classified in the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) group if they were invasively ventilated and met the Berlin criteria for ARDS within the first 3 days after ICU admission [16]. Follow-up included ICU length of stay, in-hospital mortality, day-28 (D28) mortality, day-90 (D90) mortality, as well as occurrence secondary infection based on recommendation from Comité technique des infections nosocomiales et des infections liées aux soins [17].

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