Lung ultrasound examinations were performed at the end of the standard two‐dimensional echocardiogram with the patient in the supine position. 2 , 23 , 24 The ultrasound scanning of the anterior and lateral chest on the right and left hemithorax was obtained with the same probe used for the echocardiographic study, with the transducer orientation parallel to the ribs. We identified 28 scanning sites from the second to fourth intercostal spaces on the left hemithorax and from the second to fifth intercostal spaces on the right hemithorax, along the parasternal, mid‐clavicular, anterior axillary, and midaxillary line. In each intercostal space, the number of B‐lines was quantified real time: when B‐lines were distinguishable, they were counted one by one; when they were confluent, the percentage of the white screen compared with the black screen below the pleural line was considered and then divided by 10. 2 , 23 , 24 The sum of B‐lines from the 28 scanning sites yielded a score denoting the extent of the EVLW. Zero was defined as a complete absence of B‐lines, while >30 B‐lines were considered as severe sonographic PC, according to previous literatures. 16 , 18 The intra‐observer and inter‐observer variability for the B‐lines score were previously assessed by two independent observers in a set of 20 consecutive cases and were 5% and 7%, respectively. No change in therapy was decided because of B‐lines evaluation.

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