In the original study, 5480 participants were excluded from 20,944 Japanese participants based on the following criteria: (1) viral hepatitis (defined by measurements of hepatitis B antigen and hepatitis C antibody at baseline), (2) alcoholic fatty liver disease, (3) DM at baseline, (4) fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level of ≥6.1 mmol/L, (5) use of any medication at baseline, and (6) missing covariate data. Therefore, 15,464 participants were included in the original study. This study further excluded 1184 participants with excessive alcohol consumption (alcohol consumption > 210 g/week in males and > 140 g/week in females [13]). Finally, this study included 14,280 eligible participants. Figure 1 detailed the selection process for all the participants.

Study Population

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