Eighteen patients were included in this retrospective study (6 males, age: 71.5±15.9 years, and 12 females, age: 71.0±8.9 years). The included patients underwent non-contrast MDCT imaging of the spine at our department due to suspected degenerative spine diseases or trauma. Our hospital’s picture archiving and communication system (PACS, IDS7; Sectra AB, Linköping, Sweden) was used for patient identification.

Identification criteria were: (I) existing MDCT scan of the lumbar vertebral spine, (II) no medical history of metabolic or muscular diseases, (III) no relevant, image quality reducing artifacts, (IV) no previous surgery with instrumentation at the spine, and (5) no presence of any implants in the field of view.

This study was approved by the local institutional review board (62/18S) and was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Written and oral informed consent for future anonymized data processing was given by each participant when signing the informed consent before the CT scan.

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