Detailed information about the ACCORD study is described elsewhere7. In brief, ACCORD was a multicentre randomised clinical trial in the US and Canada, comprising 10,251 people with type 2 diabetes, glycated haemoglobin levels (HbA1c) of 7.5% or more, aged 40–79 with a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) or the presence of risk factors for CVD. ACCORD recruited participants between 2003 and 2005. People with type 1 diabetes were excluded via history and clinical assessment. The passive ACCORD Follow-On (ACCORDION) study involved observation of those members of the ACCORD population who agreed to participate for long-term follow-up. The ACCORD study was approved by the Institutional Review Boards of each study centres and adhered to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. All study participants provided written informed consent forms8. For the current analysis, we included 9917 participants after excluding those with missing diabetes duration (n = 92), missing baseline eGFR (n = 59) or absence of any eGFR measurements after baseline (n = 183).

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