Interventions for smoking cessation included either medication (varenicline, bupropion, or nicotine replacement therapy – NRT) or psychosocial support. Psychosocial support was given according to the guidelines of the Ministry of Health for smoking cessation, and included brief clinical interviews via the 5A (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, and Arrange follow-up) and motivating behavioral changes to quit via the 5R (Relevance, Risks, Rewards, Roadblocks, and Repetition) methods8. General tobacco education and self-help materials were given to all patients in the first visit. Besides psychosocial smoking cessation interventions including behavioral therapeutic approaches, motivational enhancement was performed at all visits. Telephone support was given monthly for all patients during the first 3 months and at the 6th month; also the current status of smoking was asked and recorded.

Short-term quit was defined as abstinence for 12 months. Long-term quit was defined as abstinence following first intervention until the time of the study.

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