The PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published from January 1987 through December 2019 using the MeSH terms “menstruation,” “menopause,” “fertility,” “hormone,” “human,” and “lung cancer.” Potentially eligible studies were also sought regularly by computer-aided literature searches and manual searches of review articles. The detailed search strategy is shown in reference [29] (Supplementary Table S1).

In the present meta-analysis, full-text reviews were performed considering the following inclusion criteria: (1) the study reported lung cancer diagnosis along with pathological or clinical results, and (2) the study contain sex steroid hormones information in female. If data subsets were published in more than one article, only the one with the largest number of lung cancer cases was included. The exclusion criteria were as follows: (1) the study involved patients without primary lung cancer; (2) the study was a survival cohort study, cytotoxic molecular experiment, case report, review, or editorial; (3) the study contained data that could not be extracted or calculated from the original article; and (4) the study contain a duplicate population. All studies were stored in EndNote X9.

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