Two different CBCT modalities, pop-up site and home-based testing, will be leveraged in each community. HIV testing will be conducted in accordance with South African national guidelines [50]. Referrals to local HIV treatment services will be provided to those with a confirmed positive result.

Three pop-up testing sites will be leveraged in each study community. The main site (Site A) will be a fixed-positioned testing venue co-located with a centralized community venue for the full duration of the study. A second site (Site B) will be a semi-mobile container co-located with another recognizable community venue during enrolment. A third site (Site C) will be a highly mobile testing tent placed at peripheral locations in each community, and repositioned 2–3 times during enrolment.

Prior to initiating home-based testing activities, GIS maps will be obtained for each community, with 24 urban and 26 rural small-block areas delineated and individual houses plotted for targeted testing. Detailed maps and electronic tablets will be used to track the small-block areas and houses visited and tested. Home-based testing will be performed until all houses are visited at least once.

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