After 15 and 30 days of ensiling, bottles of the untreated and inoculated silages were opened for analyzing chemical composition and fermentation quality. The dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) (total nitrogen × 6.25) and gross energy (GE) were determined using AOAC procedures [18]. Dry matter (DM) was determined by drying 10 g of fresh samples at 60 °C in a forced air oven for 48 h. The GE determined by using bomb calorimeter. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were determined according to Van Soest and coworkers [19]. Representative silage (20 g) was mixed with 180 g of sterile water in a laboratory blender (Waring, New Hartford, CT, USA) for 2 min. The extract was filtered through four layers of gauze and no. 1 filter paper (Whatman, Inc., Clifton, NJ, USA). The filtrate extract was used for analysis of NH3-N, pH, LAB population, lactic acid, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and monosaccharides. The concentration of NH3-N was determined as described in our previous work [20]. The pH was determined from the filtrate solution using a pH electrode (Mettler-Toledo Ltd., Leicester, UK). The lactic acid and volatile fatty acids were determined using gas-liquid chromatography as described in our previous work, and the result was expressed as g/Kg DM of rice straw silage [21]. The total number of LAB in the silage was determined on MRS Rogosa agar, as described above, with the plate count method [14]. Colonies were counted from the plates at appropriate dilutions and the number of colony-forming units (cfu) was expressed as log10 per gram of fresh rice straw. The concentration of monosaccharides was determined by using HPLC (Waters 2690, Milford, MA, USA), using a COSMOSIL Sugar-D column (4.6 mm I.D. 250 mm) (Nacalai, San Diego, CA, USA). The solvent was acetonitrile/water (80:20; v/v) and the flow rate was 0.7 mL/min. Monosaccharides standards, including those for fructose, xylose and glucose, were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MI, USA) [22].

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