We selected different study sites to represent a wide diversity of animals and environments where wild animals and livestock are found in Chile. Samples were classified into eight categories to represent a broader spectrum of characteristics, such as family and animal types, and geographic locations within the country (Table 1). Fourth of the categories were classified as closed systems where animals have restricted movement, limited contact with other animal species and are feed by humans. The closed system category is composed of food production animals from eight industrial dairy farms (160 samples) [20] and 10 swine farms (182 samples), domestic animals from an equine veterinary hospital (545 samples) [21] and wild animals from three wildlife rehabilitation centers (405 samples) [19]. Samples were also obtained from animals living free-range outdoors, which were potentially being fed with unsafe remains of food, such as human waste [22]. The open-system category comprised samples obtained from 13 free-range dairy farms (260 samples), 329 backyard chicken farms (2188 samples), four sites of wetland birds (271 samples) and five other backyard animal sites (36 samples) (Table 1).

Characteristics of the study sites where samples were collected.

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