A structured questionnaire (see Supplementary Materials) was designed to include 23 questions divided into 4 parts. The first part comprised questions regarding personal demographic information, such as nationality, age, gender, living governorate, education level, occupation, place of residence, and past medical history of chronic disease. The other 3 parts covered the knowledge and its sources, attitude, and practices related to the COVID-19 vaccine.

The questionnaire was developed in English and then translated into Arabic. After that, it was translated back into English to check for compatibility. The survey was reviewed many times in both languages by the research team and the NCSI. A piloted sample of 30 participants was conducted to test the reliability of the questions (test-retest) and the time needed to interview a participant. Trained data collectors were used to collect data from the NCSI daily. The data was reviewed by the supervisor from the NCSI daily to make sure that it was appropriately collected and saved.

Five questions regarding knowledge of COVID-19 were included. Answers consisted of scores from 0 to 5, of which 0 meant deficient and 5 meant very good information. The remaining classifications were good, satisfactory, and sufficient.

Scores for knowledge regarding the COVID-19 vaccine and news sources were coded as 0 = “No”, 1 = “Yes” and 2 = “Don’t know”. To calculate the score, a correct answer was computed as 1, and a wrong answer was computed as 0. Not answering or not knowing was considered neutral and calculated as 0.

The attitude section included three items evaluating the level of concern regarding the vaccine. The response options were 0 = “No”, 1 = “Yes”, and 2 = “Don’t know”, and if the participant had any concerns, the reason for concern was asked. Additionally, responders were asked if they would advise family and friends to take the vaccine.

The practice section included four items used to assess the level of agreement with the following statement: if the responder was willing to take both doses of the vaccine and would inform the nearest institution regarding any side effects. If the participant refused or was not sure if they would report side effects, the reason for this was asked. The response options were 0 = “No”, 1 = “Yes”, and 2 = “Don’t know”.

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