All HPLC solvents were from J.T. Baker (Phillipsburg, NY, USA) and were HPLC grade. The ethanol (99.9%) used for extraction procedure and other used chemicals were an analytical grade. Standard of nicotine (purity: 98.40%), and chlorogenic acid (purity: 97.2%) were obtained from Dr. Ehrenstorfer GmbH (Augsburg, Germany) while standards of cryptochlorogenic (purity: ≥98%) and neochlorogenic (purity: 98%) were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (Steinheim, Germany). The standard of rutin (purity: 97%) was purchased from Acros Organics (Geel, Belgium) and nicotiflorin (purity: ≥95.0%) was obtained from PhytoLab GmbH & Co. KG (Vestenbergsgreuth, Germany). The ultrapure water for the experiments was obtained from a Milli-Q water purification system Simplicity 185 by Millipore (Bedford, MA, USA).

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