Self-rated health (SRH) is a generic measurement of health [25,26]. SRH was measured by a single question. CHARLS adopted two different 5-point scales for self-reported general health, which were randomly assigned to participants to examine any effects of central tendency bias, i.e., that respondents rated their health on either the scale “excellent”, “very good”, “good”, “fair” and “poor” or on the scale “very good”, “good”, “fair”, “poor” and “very poor”. Respondents were asked twice about their health status, once in the beginning of the health module with one scale and again at the end of the health module with the other scale. This study focused on persons with poor health outcomes, so the scale ranging from “very good” to “very poor” was used. Those who answered poor or very poor health were categorized as having poor health.

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