We consider four different protocols for what interventions are implemented when students become symptomatic or receive a positive test result. In each protocol students who become symptomatic immediately stop attending school and therefore cannot infect other students. (We do not model infection in the home environment, which is of course an important real-life practical consideration.) Every student who is symptomatic is tested and learns their results tdelay = 2 days later. The value of the parameter tdelay is important for the interventions, as the larger it is the more time pre- or asymptomatic students (who were infected by the index case, but remain in the class) have to infect their classmates. The protocols differ in which interventions are used after a student tests positive.

In the baseline protocol no further action is taken. Symptomatic students remain home and cannot infect other students, but the class continues to operate so that any other presymptomatic or asymptomatic students may infect others.

In the contact protocol as soon as a symptomatic student receives a positive test result all the other students in their group are isolated (sent home from the class) and no longer able to infect other students. It is possible for any number of groups to be isolated, and under this protocol those decisions are made independently.

In the two groups is an outbreak protocol, as in the contact model, groups with a student receiving a positive test are isolated, but when two or more groups are detected, an outbreak is declared and all students go into isolation, preventing any further transmission.

In the whole class protocol, when a symptomatic student receives a positive test result, all students are isolated and further transmission is prevented.

Fig 2 shows a cluster in an elementary school classroom and the effect of the four different protocols. Horizontal bars show the disease progression in students who are infected, with the index case at the bottom. Vertical black arrows show who infects whom, and the vertical grey bars indicate where different interventions take effect. In this particular simulation 20 out of 25 students are infected under the baseline protocol. Under the contact protocol this number is reduced to 12. Under the two groups is an outbreak protocol a single infection is prevented compared to the contact model by shutting the whole class earlier. The whole class protocol spares no additional infections in this case.

In all interventions, if individuals have not already been identified through the relevant protocol, transmission stops when symptoms begin (red to purple) as symptomatic individuals do not attend (or they leave when symptoms arise).

Note: The content above has been extracted from a research article, so it may not display correctly.



Q&A
Please log in to submit your questions online.
Your question will be posted on the Bio-101 website. We will send your questions to the authors of this protocol and Bio-protocol community members who are experienced with this method. you will be informed using the email address associated with your Bio-protocol account.



We use cookies on this site to enhance your user experience. By using our website, you are agreeing to allow the storage of cookies on your computer.