The final VCF was converted into 1D site frequency spectrum (SFS) for all of Ontario and northern vs and southern designations, respectively, using with projections for the SFS estimated in easySFS. We applied a diffusion‐based approach to demographic inference through the Diffusion Approximation for Demographic Inference (δaδi) tool by Gutenkunst et al. (2009). Nine 1D models were assessed for Ontario as a single population. The optimum model was selected as the lowest optimized log‐likelihood of all successfully run models. δaδi was also used to estimate the following summary statistics for the province: Watterson Theta (θ), Tajima's D, and the number of segregating sites. Using the mutation rate (μ) per site per generation of a closely related species (Rangifer tarandus from Chen et al., 2019), total number of sites (L), and the parameters estimated in the optimum model selected from δaδi, we estimated the ancestral effective population size as N a = θ/4 μl.

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