Statistical analysis of at least three independent experiments were expressed as median or mean ± standard deviation (SD). Normal distribution was tested by a Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. For the not-normally-distributed variable, base-10 logarithm transformation was performed before statistical analysis. The results were evaluated by unpaired Student’s t-test or unpaired one-way ANOVA with a Bonferroni post hoc test (for multiple comparison). Probability value p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Analyses were performed by using GraphPad Prism, version 8.0 (GraphPad Software, La Jolla, CA, USA).

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