The BA, sintered BA (SBA), and SBA mixed with microorganisms (SMBA) were acquired from a coal power plant in South Korea. The BA was collected after power generation, and the SBA was manufactured by mixing BA, low-quality unburned carbon (UNC), and dredged sand (DS). Notably, BA:UNC:DS was mixed at a 2:5:3 weight ratio and heated at a temperature of 550–600 °C. After cooling to 25 °C, the material was reheated to a temperature of 1000−1200 °C for sintering. After sintering, size fractions were obtained, and a size of less than 2 mm of SBA was used for the experiment. The manufactured SBA was mixed with humic acid (HA) and microorganism (Bacillus subtilis sp.) at the ratio of 8:1:1 (SBA:HA:M) by weight basis to produce SMBA.

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