Clinical Features of Severe Cerebrovascular Disease

In clinical practice, patients with severe cerebrovascular diseases have varying degrees of consciousness disturbance, and the prognosis is poor. Patients with severe cerebrovascular diseases are often prone to hospital-acquired pneumonia due to the age of the patient, poor patient awareness, poor cough and sputum expectoration, and the use of multiple medical equipment, which will seriously affect the prognosis of the patient. In addition, it is neurogenic. Pulmonary edema can also aggravate the progression of pneumonia. Severe cerebrovascular disease is accompanied by multiple complications, such as pneumonia, electrolyte imbalance and concurrent seizures, and it is found that patients with concurrent pulmonary infection and internal environmental disorders indicate a higher mortality rate. Half of the patients included in the study also developed pneumonia to varying degrees, and the patients developed severe pneumonia and were infected with multi-drug resistant bacteria. The patient underwent tracheotomy, confirming that pneumonia is a common complication of severe cerebrovascular disease.

More than half of the surviving patients with severe cerebrovascular disease will have different degrees of disability, such as paralysis of the lateral limbs, various types of aphasia, etc. This type of disease brings heavy economic pressure to the patient’s family and the entire society. The most common cause of stroke is cerebrovascular disease, of which hypertensive arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis lead to vascular disease. The overall prognosis of patients with cerebrovascular disease with mild consciousness disorder is relatively good, and the survival rate is higher; the prognosis of patients with moderate consciousness disorder is poor, and most of them will have different degrees of sequelae. Patients with severe disturbance of consciousness have the highest mortality rate and the worst prognosis. Surviving patients have serious sequelae, which seriously affect the quality of life of patients. Figure 1 shows the flow chart of emergency care for patients with severe cerebrovascular disease.

Flow chart of emergency care for patients with severe cerebrovascular disease.

Patients with severe cerebrovascular disease often have varying degrees of consciousness disturbance. In clinical practice, consciousness refers to the degree of awakening of the brain, which is the ability of the cerebral nervous system to respond to various internal and external stimuli in a timely manner. The subject of Consciousness Disorder is divided into the decline in the degree of arousal and the changes in the content of consciousness. The content of consciousness refers to the high-level neural activities of the cerebral cortex, including the mental activities of human perception, thinking, memory, orientation, emotion, and will activity. Consciousness content is manifested as confusion or delirium. The brainstem ascending activation system plays an important role in the maintenance of human consciousness. It receives various sensory signals and transmits them to the non-specific nucleus of the thalamus, and then projects to the extensive cerebral cortex, making the central nervous system in a state of excitement. Once a patient develops a disturbance of consciousness, indicating a critical condition, the prognosis of the patient is often poor. In clinical work, being able to recognize various types of consciousness disorders in patients in a timely and accurate manner, and be able to fully evaluate the patient’s condition and make correct treatments can enable patients with severe cerebrovascular disease to be rescued in time, and even turn the crisis into peace.

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