The prospectively recruited study population consisted of two groups: 20 participants without obesity (body mass index [BMI] < 30 kg/m2) (10 for training data [seven women] and 10 for evaluation [six men]) and six participants with obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2; five women). Recruitment was performed on a volunteer basis from June 19, 2019, to July 29, 2020, in a consecutive series. Eligibility criteria included age older than 18 years, obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2; for obesity or bariatric surgery group) and nonobesity (BMI < 30 kg/m2; for control group), and provision of written informed consent. Major exclusion criteria included pregnancy, claustrophobia, contraindication to MRI, and prior cardiovascular disease, hypertension, or diabetes. An additional participant with obesity (BMI of 32.8 kg/m2) and chronic myocardial infarction was later included to test the DnCNN’s ability in participants with cardiac morphologic characteristics (Fig E1 [supplement]).

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