The presence of pleural thickening (>3 mm), classified as nodular or flat thickening.

The pleural-effusion volume, classified as >1000 mL or <1000 mL. The volume was measured using the following formula: Pleural effusion volume (mL) = 70 × (basal lung-diaphragm distance (cm) + max. effusion height (cm)) [18].

The presence of a septated PE or a solid mass within the PE.

The homogeneity of the associated pulmonary consolidation, classified as homogeneous or inhomogeneous.

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