The subjects who participated in this study included 27 healthy controls (HC) and 24 LBP subjects (age matched; p = 0.21). This study received approval from the Washington University in Saint Louis Institutional Review Board. All LBP subjects recruited for this study had been diagnosed with chronic LBP due to lumbar spondyloarthropathy with a history of 6 months without lower extremity symptoms. All LBP patients had not received lumbar spine surgery at the time of scanning. All HCs had no history of neurological injury or disease prior to their scan. Table 1 summarizes the participant information (refer Supplementary Material for inclusion and exclusion criteria).

Participants' demographic information.

All participants were recruited through the Washington University School of Medicine Research Participant Registry (Volunteer for Health) and direct patient contact during clinical visits at the Barnes Jewish Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine, and Barnes Jewish West County Hospital. All participants were screened by a physician prior to enrollment in the study, and written informed consent was obtained prior to scanning.

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