We developed a comprehensive search strategy in PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO from the date of their inception to September 15, 2021 (eTable 2 in the Supplement). Search terms included self-harm, self-injury, suicidal ideation, or suicidal behavior and therapy or intervention. We reviewed the bibliographies of included records and previous reviews to supplement the electronic search.

Our review relied on Covidence, a web-based systematic review manager,25,26 to facilitate study selection by 2 investigators (A.B. and M.P.) who independently screened all records for the eligibility criteria by title and/or abstract and full text. Discrepancies were resolved through consensus.

Three reviewers (A.B., M.P., and J.W.) independently abstracted data and performed quality assessments using a spreadsheet (Microsoft Excel; Microsoft Corp). Extracted variables included sample size, demographic characteristics, intervention characteristics (modality and number of sessions), outcome measures, study name and authors, study location, and treatment duration and follow-up.

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