Baseline data, including medical history, health status, and family history, were obtained via face-to-face interviews. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured using standard measurements. BMI was calculated using weight and height (kg/m2). Blood pressure was measured in the left arm using a calibrated aneroid sphygmomanometer, with the participant in a seated position after at least 5 min of rest.

Peripheral venous blood samples were collected and centrifuged at 1500 g at 4°C for 15 min. The serum obtained by centrifugation was rapidly stored at –80°C. Echocardiography was conducted within 1 week from the collection of peripheral venous blood samples. Fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, TG, HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and other routine biochemical parameters were measured using an automatic analyzer. Serum sST2 was measured using the venous serum samples via an ELISA Kit (DST200, R&D) according to the manufacturer’s protocol.

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