Demographic characteristics are shown in Table 1. To better describe the sample, veterans self-reported race/ethnicity using predefined categories or could choose “other.” Veterans met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition) (DSM-5) criteria for PTSD26 and agreed to not participate in mindfulness-based interventions, CPT, or prolonged exposure during the study. Exclusions were (1) substance use dependence disorder other than alcohol, (2) alcohol use that posed a safety concern, (3) high risk of suicide, (4) severe psychiatric illness (Supplement 1), or (5) prior participation in loving-kindness meditation or CPT. Medication and supportive counseling were allowed throughout the study.

Abbreviations: CAPS-5, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale; CPT, cognitive processing therapy; PROMIS, Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System; PTSD, posttraumatic stress disorder; SUD, substance use disorder.

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