Cardiac function of all animal models were measured using the Vevo 2100 imaging system (Visual Sonics Inc., Toronto, Ontario, Canada). Mice were anesthetized using tribromoethanol (100 mg/kg, Sigma-Aldrich). Ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS), cardiac output (CO) and stroke volume (SV) were calculated at M-mode to evaluate cardiac function.

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