Participants of the INT-group conducted a lifestyle exercise program which included balance exercises conducted during the daily tooth brushing routine. According to Creeth et al. [22], the teeth were brushed twice per day (i.e., in the morning, right after getting up and at night, before going to bed) for three minutes each on seven days per week for a duration of eight weeks resulting in a total of 112 exercise sessions. This equals an overall exercise time of 336 min and a weekly exercise time of 42 min. The exercise protocol is illustrated in detail in Table 2. Before the exercise period started, participants of the INT-group received information on how to perform the balance exercises by the authors of this article. Additionally, exercise cards containing pictures and descriptions on how to correctly perform all exercises were provided for the eight weeks exercise period. Moreover, participants of the INT-group were asked during weekly phone calls whether they need more information on how to properly perform the balance exercises. By doing so, we wanted to make sure that the exercises were performed with adequate movement skill competence. All participants had to document the realized exercise sessions in a training log. The balance enhancing exercises were performed barefooted or alternatively with socks under different stance and surface conditions. Progression during the balance exercise program was achieved by continuously reducing the base of support (i.e., from step over tandem to one-legged stance) and by including an unstable surface (i.e., rolled up towel). This exercise sequence for progression in balance training has been validated in a previously published study [23]. The participants of the passive CON-group did not receive any intervention during the study period.

Protocol of the eight weeks balance exercise program for the intervention group conducted twice daily during tooth brushing routines

• Step stance (week 1: on stable surface [i.e., floor], week 2: on unstable surface [i.e., rolled up towel])

• Tandem stance (week 3: on stable surface, week 4: on unstable surface [i.e., rolled up towel])

• One-legged stancea (weeks 5 & 6: on stable surface, weeks 7 & 8: on unstable surface [i.e., rolled up towel])

• 8 weeks

• 7 days per week

• 2 sessions per day (i.e., in the morning and the evening)

• 3 min per session

aParticipants were instructed to use the dominant leg first and to switch to the non-dominant leg as they felt safe and comfortable to do so. Given that participants concurrently brushed their teeth and performed balance exercises, the applied exercise program can be considered a dual-task program including a primary balance task and a secondary motor interference task (i.e., brushing teeth)

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