The data were analyzed and visualized using R statistics software version 3.4.1 and ggplot2 package. Nonparametric tests were performed by built-in R functions using normal approximation with continuity correction. MW denotes Mann–Whitney sum of ranks test. Boxplots in all figures are represented by the median, upper and lower quartiles, and upper and lower fences; outliers are not shown. Error bars in all figures and the numbers after the ± sign represent 95% confidence intervals. Two-sided p values are reported throughout the manuscript unless the contrary is specified. The levels of significance 5%, 1%, and 0.1% in all figures are denoted by *, **, and ***, respectively.

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