Blue light-induced ChR2 activation was performed as previously described82. 100 mW/cm2 blue LED light source was used for light illumination. Briefly, 30–40 animals expressing ChR2::gfp transgene were transferred onto NGM plates with OP50 spread supplemented with 500 μM all-trans retinal (Sigma), and recovered at 20 °C in dark for 4 h before light illumination. Plates were placed without covers on the stage with blue light passing through without objectives. For light illumination, animals were exposed to continuous blue light for 1 min and recovered at 20 °C in dark for 10 min before taking images.

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