Cells were lysed in a RIPA buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, 150 mM NaCl, 1% Nonidet P-40, 0.5% deoxycholate, 0.1% SDS, 25 mM β-glycerophosphate, 1 mM sodium orthovanadate, 1 mM sodium fluoride, 1 mM PMSF, 1 μg/ml aprotinin, and 1 μg/ml leupeptin). After centrifugation, cell lysates were subjected to SDS-PAGE and transferred onto polyvinylidene difluoride membranes (Millipore). To detect IL-11, cell lysates were subjected to SDS-PAGE under non-reducing conditions. The membranes were immunoblotted with the indicated antibodies. The membranes were developed with Super Signal West Dura extended duration substrate (Thermo Scientific) and analyzed by Amersham Biosciences imager 600 (GE Healthcare). In some experiments, blots were quantified using the freeware program Fiji.

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