Following confirmation of yolk sac absorption and initiation of first feeding in the additional control incubator at each temperature (day 52 at 2.8 °C and day 76 at 0.5 °C), 30 larvae were randomly sampled from each incubator, anesthetized, and photographed at 1.6× magnification. Information on larval length, swim bladder inflation (absence/presence), feeding success (absence/presence, with ‘0′ being an empty stomach and ‘1’ containing a single/ multiple food particles), and incidence of deformities was extracted from the images for each larva (Supplementary Table S4). Prevalence of deformities of the eyes, jaws, spine, and pericardial edema was quantified using absence (0)/ presence (1) for each larva. An index was calculated for each incubator using the number of fish with a given condition divided by the total number of fish sampled from each incubator99. The specific growth rate was calculated using incubator-averaged length measurements taken from pictures of yolk sac larvae following hatch (Lo) and feeding larvae (Lt) of each temperature group and accounting for the period between the time points (t) in the following equation:

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