Total RNAs were extracted using the RNeasy Plus Mini Kit (Qiagen) and cDNA was prepared using the SuperScript VILO cDNA Synthesis Kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific) according to manufacturer's protocols. qRT-PCR was performed using the StepOne Real-Time PCR System and PowerTrack SYBR Green Master Mix (Thermo Fisher Scientific) following the instructions. Data were examined by the 2-ΔΔCt method. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was used as a housekeeping gene. Primers for qRT-PCR are listed in Supplementary Table S1.

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