Mice (female, BALB/c, 8–12 weeks of age) were obtained from Janvier Laboratories (Le Genest-Saint-Isle, France). For internal studies, experiments were approved by the Regional council Tübingen, animal testing license CUR 03/20. For studies performed externally, Balb/c mice were provided and handled by Preclinics Gesellschaft für präklinische Forschung mbH (Potsdam, Germany). All animal experiments were conducted in accordance with German laws and guidelines for animal protection and appropriate local and national approvals.

Syrian golden hamsters (female, 11–13 weeks of age), were obtained from Envigo (Indianapolis, IN, USA). Animals were housed and all procedures were performed by Viroclinics Xplore animal facility (Schaijk, The Netherlands) under conditions that meet the standard of Dutch law for animal experimentation and in accordance with Directive 2010/63/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 September 2010 on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes. Ethical approval for the experiment was registered under protocol number AVD277002015283-WP08.

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