A full 3D finite element model with the precise geometry of the final CBPM-FBG filament holder was developed using the software Abaqus Standard/Explicit 2017 (Dassault Systèmes, France). The glass filament, optical fibre, filament holder and adhesive are modelled as linear elastic materials and blades as rigid body.

The epoxy droplet is treated as elastic–plastic wherein the material is linear-elastic uptill 60 MPa followed by plastic strain evolution (0%, 60 MPa; 0.2%,70 MPa) with the kinematic hardening conditions. The values of the material constants are presented in Table 1. The ‘fixed’ attachment points of the filament holder were constrained in all DOF’s, as shown in Fig. 9. The ends of the test filament were constrained on the filament holder’s stage using an adhesive block (the tie constraint at element interfaces). A section of elements was chosen on the FBG fiber having their characteristic length the same as the real FBG sensor—strains were recorded in this section during each simulation. A displacement was applied along the direction of the filament long axis (Uy) and corresponding force and strain data were recorded during simulation (see Fig. 3). The dynamic FE model was used to investigate the dynamic behaviour of the new filament holder.

(a) FE model of the MB test system. An element type of 8-node linear brick (C3D8R) is used for all parts of the FE model. [This figure is generated using Abaqus Standard/Explicit software, version 2017, https://www.3ds.com/products-services/simulia/products/abaqus/].

The values of the material constants used in the FE modelling.

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