The main study outcome was anemia at baseline and after 1 year. Anemia was defined as Hb < 11 g/dL as the definition in the study of Trial to Reduce Cardiovascular Events With Aranesp Therapy (TREAT)28. We further defined more severe anemia as Hb < 10 g/dL since ESAs therapy was usually started below this level by current clinical practice29. Hemoglobin at 1 year was determined by simple linear regression with all hemoglobin measurements in this 1 year.

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