We investigated the relations between the Shapley values and the labels. We asked three radiologists (R.Y., S.R. and D.L.R.) to re-label 300 chest X-rays (i.e. 100 least valuable, 100 most valuable and 100 randomly sampled from the training set). The radiologists were blinded to the original labels and the Shapley values while labeling the chest X-rays. For each chest X-ray, the radiologists had the choice of labeling it as pneumonia, no pneumonia or unsure.

In order to further evaluate mislabeled images and their Shapley values, we asked the three radiologists to re-evaluate the 100 most valuable and the 100 least valuable chest X-ray images, and determined whether these images have other types of abnormalities (e.g. opacity) or are completely normal.

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