The study consisted of three sessions with a two-cohort quasi-experimental design (Fig. 1). The RF was assessed during the first two sessions (Test and ReTest), and the HRV parameters were calculated for each breathing rate of the intitial phase of the HRVB protocol. In the third session, participants breathed abdominally and freely (without a metronome). Thus, comparisons were carried out between breathing rates and between sessions. All participants gave their informed consent, received information about the procedure, and were able to ask questions before starting the session, as well as being able to abandon the experiment at any time without giving any explanation. Experimental procedures were approved by the Ethics Committee of the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona and the data were treated anonymously. All methods were performed in accordance with the relevant guidelines and regulations.

Schema of the study procedure.

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